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A network policy is a specification of how groups of pods are allowed to communicate with each other and other network endpoints. NetworkPolicy resources use labels to select pods and define rules which specify what traffic is allowed to the selected pods.
At the end of this module, you will :
- Learn to manage the external access of internal resources
- Learn to manage ingress controller
- Learn to secure the cluster access
Create the directory
data/routesin your home folder to manage the YAML file needed in this module.
This module needs an Ingress controller to be deployed on the cluster. The default Ingress controller used in this module is Nginx. Ensure this module is up and running before continuing.
Ingress exposes HTTP and HTTPS routes from outside the cluster to Services within the cluster. Traffic routing is controlled by rules defined on the ingress resource.
An ingress can be configured to give services externally-reachable URLs, load balance traffic, terminate SSL, and offer name based virtual hosting. An ingress controller is responsible for fulfilling the ingress, usually with a loadbalancer, though it may also configure your edge router or additional frontends to help handle the traffic.
In order for the ingress resource to work, the cluster must have an ingress controller running :
The create command can create a Ingress object based on a yaml file definition.
On Minikube, ensure that the ingress addons is enable before continuing :
minikube addons enable ingress
First, deploy two static website in two different deployments. Then, expose each one on the port 80.
- name: static
- name: AUTHOR
- containerPort: 80
- name: static
- name: AUTHOR
- containerPort: 80
Expose each on of the Deployment on port 80.
- port: 80
- port: 80
Create an Ingress resource to expose an Nginx pod Service's on port 80.
- host: training.wikitops.io
Create each resources based on the previous yaml files definition.
kubectl create -f ~/data/routes/
On Minikube, the last step is to configure the /etc/hosts file to resolve the training.wikitops.io domain name with the minikube ip :
echo "$(minikube ip) training.wikitops.io" | sudo tee -a /etc/hosts
Once the Pods are up and running, you should be able to connect to this two urls :
The get command list the object asked. It could be a single object or a list of multiple objects comma separated. This command is useful to get the status of each object. The output can be formatted to only display some information based on some json search or external tools like
The default output display some useful information about each services :
- Name : the name of the newly created resource
- Hosts : the host to apply the newly created resource
- Address : the address exposed by the newly created resource
- Ports : the ports exposed by the resource
- Age : the age since his creation
List the current Ingress resources created.
kubectl get ingress
NAME HOSTS ADDRESS PORTS AGE
myfirstingress training.wikitops.io 10.0.2.15 80 5m
Once an object is running, it is inevitably a need to debug problems or check the configuration deployed.
The describe command display a lot of configuration information about the Ingress (labels, annotations, events, backend associated, IP address associated, etc.) and the rules available for each ingress (hosts, path, backend associated).
This command is really useful to introspect and debug an object deployed in a cluster.
Describe one of the existing Ingress in the default namespace.
kubectl describe ingress myfirstingress
Default backend: default-http-backend:80 (172.17.0.4:8080)
Host Path Backends
---- ---- --------
/path1 webserver1:80 (<none>)
/path2 webserver2:80 (<none>)
Type Reason Age From Message
---- ------ ---- ---- -------
Normal CREATE 3m nginx-ingress-controller Ingress default/myfirstingress
Normal UPDATE 2m (x2 over 3m) nginx-ingress-controller Ingress default/myfirstingress
Kubernetes come with a lot of documentation about his objects and the available options in each one. Those information can be fin easily in command line or in the official Kubernetes documentation.
The explain command allows to directly ask the API resource via the command line tools to display information about each Kubernetes objects and their architecture.
Get the documentation of a specific field of a resource.
kubectl explain ingresses.spec
RESOURCE: spec <Object>
Spec is the desired state of the Ingress. More info:
IngressSpec describes the Ingress the user wishes to exist.
A default backend capable of servicing requests that don't match any rule.
At least one of 'backend' or 'rules' must be specified. This field is
optional to allow the loadbalancer controller or defaulting logic to
specify a global default.
A list of host rules used to configure the Ingress. If unspecified, or no
rule matches, all traffic is sent to the default backend.
TLS configuration. Currently the Ingress only supports a single TLS port,
443. If multiple members of this list specify different hosts, they will be
multiplexed on the same port according to the hostname specified through
the SNI TLS extension, if the ingress controller fulfilling the ingress
Add the --recursive flag to display all of the fields at once without descriptions.
The delete command delete resources by filenames, stdin, resources and names, or by resources and label selector.
Be careful on the deletion of a Ingress object. This will interupt existing communication based on this resource.
Note that the delete command does NOT do resource version checks, so if someone submits an update to a resource right when you submit a delete, their update will be lost along with the rest of the resource.
Delete the previous ingress in command line.
# Delete Ingress
kubectl delete ingress myfirstingress
# Delete Deployments
kubectl delete deployment webserver1 webserver2
# Delete Services
kubectl delete service webserver1 webserver2
The purpose of this section is to manage each steps of the lifecycle of an application to better understand each concepts of the Kubernetes course.
The main objective in this module is to understand how to manage and secure the external access of Kubernetes resources.
For more information about the application used all along the course, please refer to the Exercise App > Voting App link in the left panel.
Based on the principles explain in this module, try by your own to handle this steps. The development of a yaml file is recommended.
The file developed has to be stored in this directory :
- 1.Expose the vote Services as an Ingress controller.
- 2.Expose the result Services as an Ingress controller.
- 3.Ensure that you accessed both services externally.
Create the yaml file definition to expose the vote service.
- path: /
- path: /
Create the yaml file definition to expose the result service.
kubectl create -f ~/data/votingapp/12_routes/routes.yaml
Those documentations can help you to go further in this topic :